Linux, politics, and other interesting things
One of the exciting things about having a cloud computing service is how to talk to the rest of the world. It’s all very well to have a varying number of machines in various locations, but you need constant DNS names at least (and sometimes constant IP addresses) to do most useful things.
I have previously described how to start an EC2 instance and login to it – which includes discovering it’s IP address . It would not be difficult (in theory at least) to use nsupdate to change DNS records after an instance is started or terminated. One problem is that there is no way of knowing when an instance is undesirably terminated (IE killed by hardware failure) apart from polling ec2-describe-instances so it seems impossible to remove a DNS name before some other EC2 customer gets a dynamic IP address. So it seems that in most cases you will want a constant IP address (which Amazon calls an Elastic IP address) if you care about this possibility. For the case of an orderly shutdown you could have a script remove the DNS record, wait for the timeout period specified by the DNS server (so that all correctly operating DNS caches have purged the record) and then terminate the instance.
One thing that interests me is the possibility of running front-end mail servers on EC2. Mail servers that receive mail from the net can take significant amounts of CPU time and RAM for spam and virus filters. Instead of having the expense of running enough MX servers to sustain the highest possible load even while one of the servers has experienced a hardware failure there is a possibility of running an extra EC2 instance at peak times with the possibility of running a large instance for a peak time when one of the dedicated servers has experienced a problem. The idea of having a mail server die and have someone else’s server take the IP address and receive the mail is too horrible to contemplate, so an Elastic IP address is required.
It is quite OK to have a set of mail servers of which not all servers run all the time (this is why the MX record was introduced to the DNS) so having a server run periodically at periods of high load (one of the benefits of the EC2 service) will not require changes to the DNS. I think it’s reasonably important to minimise the amount of changes to the DNS due to the possibility of accidentally breaking it (which is a real catastrophe) and the possibility of servers caching DNS data for longer than they should. The alternative is to change the MX record to not point to the hostname of the server when the instance is terminated. I will be interested to read comments on this issue.
The command ec2-allocate-address will allocate a public IP address for your use. Once the address is allocated it will cost $0.01 per hour whenever it is unused. There are also commands ec2-describe-addresses (to list all addresses allocated to you), ec2-release-address (to release an allocated address), ec2-associate-address to associate an IP address with a running instance, and ec2-disassociate-address to remove such an association.
The command “ec2-associate-address -i INSTANCE ADDRESS” will associate an IP address with the specified instance (replace INSTANCE with the instance ID – a code starting with “i-” that is returned from ec2-describe-instances. The command “ec2-describe-instances |grep ^INSTANCE|cut -f2” will give you a list of all instance IDs in use – this is handy if your use of EC2 involves only one active instance at a time (all the EC2 API commands give output in tab-separated lists and can be easily manipulated with grep and cut). Associating an IP address with an instance is documented as taking several minutes, while Amazon provides no guarantees or precise figures as to how long the various operations take it seems that assigning an IP address is one of the slower operations. I expect that is due to the requirement for reconfiguring a firewall device (which services dozens or maybe hundreds of nodes) while creating or terminating an instance is an operation that is limited in scope to a single Xen host.
One result that I didn’t expect was that associating an elastic address is that the original address that was assigned to the instance is removed. I had a ssh connection open to an instance when I assigned an elastic address and my connection was broken. It makes sense to remove addresses that aren’t needed (IPv4 addresses are a precious commodity) and further reading of the documentation revealed that this is the documented behavior.
One thing I have not yet investigated is whether assigning an IP address from one instance to another is atomic. Taking a few minutes to assign an IP address is usually no big deal, but having an IP address be unusable for a few minutes while in the process of transitioning between servers would be quite inconvenient. It seems that a reasonably common desire would be to have a small instance running and to then transition the IP address to a large (or high-CPU) instance if the load gets high, having this happen without the users noticing would be a good thing.Best Posts