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802.1x Authentication on Debian

I recently had to setup some Linux workstations with 802.1x authentication (described as “Ethernet authentication”) to connect to a smart switch. The most useful web site I found was the Ubuntu help site about 802.1x Authentication [1]. But it didn’t describe exactly what I needed so I’m writing a more concise explanation.

The first thing to note is that the authentication mechanism works the same way as 802.11 wireless authentication, so it’s a good idea to have the wpasupplicant package installed on all laptops just in case you need to connect to such a network.

The first step is to create a wpa_supplicant config file, I named mine /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf. The file needs contents like the following:

network={
 key_mgmt=IEEE8021X
 eap=PEAP
 identity="USERNAME"
 anonymous_identity="USERNAME"
 password="PASS"
 phase1="auth=MD5"
 phase2="auth=CHAP password=PASS"
 eapol_flags=0
}

The first difference between what I use and the Ubuntu example is that I’m using “eap=PEAP“, that is an issue of the way the network is configured, whoever runs your switch can tell you the correct settings for that. The next difference is that I’m using “auth=CHAP” and the Ubuntu example has “auth=PAP“. The difference between those protocols is that CHAP has a challenge-response and PAP just has the password sent (maybe encrypted) over the network. If whoever runs the network says that they “don’t store unhashed passwords” or makes any similar claim then they are almost certainly using CHAP.

Change USERNAME and PASS to your user name and password.

wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf -D wired -i eth0

The above command can be used to test the operation of wpa_supplicant.

Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant
eth0: Associated with 00:01:02:03:04:05
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-STARTED EAP authentication started
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PROPOSED-METHOD vendor=0 method=25
TLS: Unsupported Phase2 EAP method 'CHAP'
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-METHOD EAP vendor 0 method 25 (PEAP) selected
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PEER-CERT depth=0 subject=''
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-PEER-CERT depth=0 subject=''
EAP-MSCHAPV2: Authentication succeeded
EAP-TLV: TLV Result - Success - EAP-TLV/Phase2 Completed
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-EAP-SUCCESS EAP authentication completed successfully
eth0: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 00:01:02:03:04:05 completed [id=0 id_str=]

Above is the output of a successful test with wpa_supplicant. I replaced the MAC of the switch with 00:01:02:03:04:05. Strangely it doesn’t like “CHAP” but is automatically selecting “MSCHAPV2” and working, maybe anything other than “PAP” would do.

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
  wpa-driver wired
  wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant_SITE.conf

Above is a snippet of /etc/network/interfaces that works with this configuration.

Nexus 6P and Galaxy S5 Mini

Just over a month ago I ordered a new Nexus 6P [1]. I’ve had it for over a month now and it’s time to review it and the Samsung Galaxy S5 Mini I also bought.

Security

The first noteworthy thing about this phone is the fingerprint scanner on the back. The recommended configuration is to use your fingerprint for unlocking the phone which allows a single touch on the scanner to unlock the screen without the need to press any other buttons. To unlock with a pattern or password you need to first press the “power” button to get the phone’s attention.

I have been considering registering a fingerprint from my non-dominant hand to reduce the incidence of accidentally unlocking it when carrying it or fiddling with it.

The phone won’t complete the boot process before being unlocked. This is a good security feature.

Android version 6 doesn’t assign permissions to apps at install time, they have to be enabled at run time (at least for apps that support Android 6). So you get lots of questions while running apps about what they are permitted to do. Unfortunately there’s no “allow for the duration of this session” option.

A new Android feature prevents changing security settings when there is an “overlay running”. The phone instructs you to disable overlay access for the app in question but that’s not necessary. All that is necessary is for the app to stop using the overlay feature. I use the Twilight app [2] to dim the screen and use redder colors at night. When I want to change settings at night I just have to pause that app and there’s no need to remove the access from it – note that all the web pages and online documentation saying otherwise is wrong.

Another new feature is to not require unlocking while at home. This can be a convenience feature but fingerprint unlocking is so easy that it doesn’t provide much benefit. The downside of enabling this is that if someone stole your phone they could visit your home to get it unlocked. Also police who didn’t have a warrant permitting search of a phone could do so anyway without needing to compel the owner to give up the password.

Design

This is one of the 2 most attractive phones I’ve owned (the other being the sparkly Nexus 4). I think that the general impression of the appearance is positive as there are transparent cases on sale. My phone is white and reminds me of EVE from the movie Wall-E.

Cables

This phone uses the USB Type-C connector, which isn’t news to anyone. What I didn’t realise is that full USB-C requires that connector at both ends as it’s not permitted to have a data cable with USB-C at the device and and USB-A at the host end. The Nexus 6P ships with a 1M long charging cable that has USB-C at both ends and a ~10cm charging cable with USB-C at one end and type A at the other (for the old batteries and the PCs that don’t have USB-C). I bought some 2M long USB-C to USB-A cables for charging my new phone with my old chargers, but I haven’t yet got a 1M long cable. Sometimes I need a cable that’s longer than 10cm but shorter than 2M.

The USB-C cables are all significantly thicker than older USB cables. Part of that would be due to having many more wires but presumably part of it would be due to having thicker power wires for delivering 3A. I haven’t measured power draw but it does seem to charge faster than older phones.

Overall the process of converting to USB-C is going to be a lot more inconvenient than USB SuperSpeed (which I could basically ignore as non-SuperSpeed connectors worked).

It will be good when laptops with USB-C support become common, it should allow thinner laptops with more ports.

One problem I initially had with my Samsung Galaxy Note 3 was the Micro-USB SuperSpeed socket on the phone being more fiddly for the Micro-USB charging plug I used. After a while I got used to that but it was still an annoyance. Having a symmetrical plug that can go into the phone either way is a significant convenience.

Calendars and Contacts

I share most phone contacts with my wife and also have another list that is separate. In the past I had used the Samsung contacts system for the contacts that were specific to my phone and a Google account for contacts that are shared between our phones. Now that I’m using a non-Samsung phone I got another Gmail account for the purpose of storing contacts. Fortunately you can get as many Gmail accounts as you want. But it would be nice if Google supported multiple contact lists and multiple calendars on a single account.

Samsung Galaxy S5 Mini

Shortly after buying the Nexus 6P I decided that I spend enough time in pools and hot tubs that having a waterproof phone would be a good idea. Probably most people wouldn’t consider reading email in a hot tub on a cruise ship to be an ideal holiday, but it works for me. The Galaxy S5 Mini seems to be the cheapest new phone that’s waterproof. It is small and has a relatively low resolution screen, but it’s more than adequate for a device that I’ll use for an average of a few hours a week. I don’t plan to get a SIM for it, I’ll just use Wifi from my main phone.

One noteworthy thing is the amount of bloatware on the Samsung. Usually when configuring a new phone I’m so excited about fancy new hardware that I don’t notice it much. But this time buying the new phone wasn’t particularly exciting as I had just bought a phone that’s much better. So I had more time to notice all the annoyances of having to download updates to Samsung apps that I’ll never use. The Samsung device manager facility has been useful for me in the past and the Samsung contact list was useful for keeping a second address book until I got a Nexus phone. But most of the Samsung apps and 3d party apps aren’t useful at all.

It’s bad enough having to install all the Google core apps. I’ve never read mail from my Gmail account on my phone. I use Fetchmail to transfer it to an IMAP folder on my personal mail server and I’d rather not have the Gmail app on my Android devices. Having any apps other than the bare minimum seems like a bad idea, more apps in the Android image means larger downloads for an over-the-air update and also more space used in the main partition for updates to apps that you don’t use.

Not So Exciting

In recent times there hasn’t been much potential for new features in phones. All phones have enough RAM and screen space for all common apps. While the S5 Mini has a small screen it’s not that small, I spent many years with desktop PCs that had a similar resolution. So while the S5 Mini was released a couple of years ago that doesn’t matter much for most common use. I wouldn’t want it for my main phone but for a secondary phone it’s quite good.

The Nexus 6P is a very nice phone, but apart from USB-C, the fingerprint reader, and the lack of a stylus there’s not much noticeable difference between that and the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 I was using before.

I’m generally happy with my Nexus 6P, but I think that anyone who chooses to buy a cheaper phone probably isn’t going to be missing a lot.

Coalitions

In Australia we are about to have a federal election, so we inevitably have a lot of stupid commentary and propaganda about politics.

One thing that always annoys me is the claim that we shouldn’t have small parties. We have two large parties, Liberal (right-wing, somewhat between the Democrats and Republicans in the US) and Labor which is somewhat similar to Democrats in the US. In the US the first past the post voting system means that votes for smaller parties usually don’t affect the outcome. In Australia we have Instant Runoff Voting (sometimes known as “The Australian Ballot”) which has the side effect of encouraging votes for small parties.

The Liberal party almost never wins enough seats to make government on it’s own, it forms a coalition with the National party. Election campaigns are often based on the term “The Coalition” being used to describe a Liberal-National coalition and the expected result if “The Coalition” wins the election is that the leader of the Liberal party will be Prime Minister and the leader of the National party will be the Deputy Prime Minister. Liberal party representatives and supporters often try to convince people that they shouldn’t vote for small parties and that small parties are somehow “undemocratic”, seemingly unaware of the irony of advocating for “The Coalition” but opposing the idea of a coalition.

If the Liberal and Labor parties wanted to form a coalition they could do so in any election where no party has a clear majority, and do it without even needing the National party. Some people claim that it’s best to have the major parties take turns in having full control of the government without having to make a deal with smaller parties and independent candidates but that’s obviously a bogus claim. The reason we have Labor allying with the Greens and independents is that the Liberal party opposes them at every turn and the Liberal party has a lot of unpalatable policies that make alliances difficult.

One thing that would be a good development in Australian politics is to have the National party actually represent rural voters rather than big corporations. Liberal policies on mining are always opposed to the best interests of farmers and the Liberal policies on trade aren’t much better. If “The Coalition” wins the election then the National party could insist on a better deal for farmers in exchange for their continued support of Liberal policies.

If Labor wins more seats than “The Coalition” but not enough to win government directly then a National-Labor coalition is something that could work. I think that the traditional interest of Labor in representing workers and the National party in representing farmers have significant overlap. The people who whinge about a possible Green-Labor alliance should explain why they aren’t advocating a National-Labor alliance. I think that the Labor party would rather make a deal with the National party, it’s just a question of whether the National party is going to do what it takes to help farmers. They could make the position of Deputy Prime Minister part of the deal so the leader of the National party won’t miss out.

Sysadmin Skills and University Degrees

I think that a major deficiency in Computer Science degrees is the lack of sysadmin training.

Version Control

The first thing that needs to be added is the basics of version control. CVS (which is now regarded as obsolete) was initially released when I was in the first year of university. But SCCS and RCS had been in use for some time. I think that the people who designed my course were remiss in not adding any mention of version control (not even strategies for saving old versions of your work), one could say that they taught us about version control by letting us accidentally delete our assignments. :-#

If a course is aimed at just teaching programmers (as most CS degrees are) then version control for group assignments should be a standard part of the course. Having some marks allocated for the quality of comments in the commit log would also be good.

A modern CS degree should cover distributed version control, that means covering Git as it’s the most popular distributed version control system nowadays.

For people who want to work as sysadmins (as opposed to developers who run their own PCs) a course should have an optional subject for version control of an entire system. That includes tools like etckeeper for version control of system configuration and tools like Puppet for automated configuration and system maintenance.

Dependencies

It’s quite reasonable for a CS degree to provide simplified problems for the students to solve so they can concentrate on one task. But in the real world the problems are more complex. One of the more difficult parts of managing real systems is dependencies. You have issues of header files etc at compile time and library versions at deployment. Often you need a program to run on systems with different versions of the OS which means making it compile for both and deal with differences in behaviour.

There are lots of hacky things that people do to deal with dependencies in systems. People link compiled programs statically, install custom versions of interpreters in user home directories or /usr/local for daemons, and do many other things. These things can have bad consequences including data loss, system downtime, and security problems. It’s not always wrong to do such things, but it’s something that should only be done with knowledge of the potential consequences and a plan for mitigating them. A CS degree should teach the potential advantages and disadvantages of these options to allow graduates to make informed decisions.

Backups

I’ve met many people who call themselves computer professionals and think that backups aren’t needed. I’ve seen production systems that were designed in a way that backups were impossible. The lack of backups is a serious problem for the entire industry.

Some lectures about backups could be part of a version control subject in a general CS degree. For a degree that majors in Sysadmin at least one subject about backups is appropriate.

For any backup (even backing up your home PC) you should have offsite backups to deal with fire damage, multiple backups of different ages (especially important now that encryption malware is a serious threat), and a plan for how fast you can restore things.

The most common use of backups is to deal with the case of deleting the wrong file. Unfortunately this case seems to be the most rarely mentioned.

Another common situation that should be covered is a configuration error that results in a system that won’t boot correctly. It’s a very common problem and one that can be solved quickly if you are prepared but which can take a long time if you aren’t.

For a Sysadmin course it is important to cover backups of systems in remote datacenters.

Hardware

A good CS degree should cover the process of selecting suitable hardware. Programmers often get to advise on the hardware used to run their code, especially at smaller companies. Reliability features such as RAID, ECC RAM, and clustering should be covered.

Planning for upgrades is a very important part of this which is usually not taught. Not only do you need to plan for an upgrade without much downtime or cost but you also need to plan for what upgrades are possible. Next year will your system require hardware that is more powerful than you can buy next year? If so you need to plan for a cluster now.

For a Sysadmin course some training about selecting cloud providers and remote datacenter hosting should be provided. There are many complex issues that determine whether it’s most appropriate to use a cloud service, hosted virtual machines, hosted physical servers managed by the ISP, hosted physical servers purchased by the client, or on-site servers. Often a large system will involve 2 or more of those options, even some small companies use 3 or more of those options to try and provide the performance and reliability they need at a price they can afford.

We Need Sysadmin Degrees

Covering the basic coding skills takes a lot of time. I don’t think we can reasonably expect a CS degree to cover all that and also give good coverage to sysadmin work. While some basic sysadmin skills are needed by every programmer I think we need to have separate majors for people who want a career in system administration.

Sysadmins need some programming skills, but that’s mostly scripting and basic debugging. Someone who’s main job is as a sysadmin can probably expect to never make any significant change to a program that’s more than 10,000 lines long. A large amount of the programming in a CS degree can be replaced by “file a bug report” for a sysadmin degree.

This doesn’t mean that sysadmins shouldn’t be doing software development or that they aren’t good at it. One noteworthy fact is that it appears that the most common job among developers of the Debian distribution of Linux is System Administration. Developing an OS involves some of the most intensive and demanding programming. But I think that more than a few people who do such work would have skipped a couple of programming subjects in favour of sysadmin subjects if they were given a choice.

Suggestions

Did I miss anything? What other sysadmin skills should be taught in a CS degree?

Do any universities teach these things now? If so please name them in the comments, it is good to help people find universities that teach them what they want to learn and help them in their career.

I Just Ordered a Nexus 6P

Last year I wrote a long-term review of Android phones [1]. I noted that my Galaxy Note 3 only needed to last another 4 months to be the longest I’ve been happily using a phone.

Last month (just over 7 months after writing that) I fell on my Note 3 and cracked the screen. The Amourdillo case is good for protecting the phone [2] so it would have been fine if I had just dropped it. But I fell with the phone in my hand, the phone landed face down and about half my body weight ended up in the middle of the phone which apparently bent it enough to crack the screen. As a result of this the GPS seems to be less reliable than it used to be so there might be some damage to the antenna too.

I was quoted $149 to repair the screen, I could possibly have found a cheaper quote if I had shopped around but it was a good starting point for comparison. The Note 3 originally cost $550 including postage in 2014. A new Note 4 costs $550 + postage now from Shopping Square and a new Note 3 is on ebay with a buy it now price of $380 with free postage.

It seems like bad value to pay 40% of the price of a new Note 3 or 25% the price of a Note 4 to fix my old phone (which is a little worn and has some other minor issues). So I decided to spend a bit more and have a better phone and give my old phone to one of my relatives who doesn’t mind having a cracked screen.

I really like the S-Pen stylus on the Samsung Galaxy Note series of phones and tablets. I also like having a hardware home button and separate screen space reserved for the settings and back buttons. The downsides to the Note series are that they are getting really expensive nowadays and the support for new OS updates (and presumably security fixes) is lacking. So when Kogan offered a good price on a Nexus 6P [3] with 64G of storage I ordered one. I’m going to give the Note 3 to my father, he wants a phone with a bigger screen and a stylus and isn’t worried about cracks in the screen.

I previously wrote about Android device service life [4]. My main conclusion in that post was that storage space is a major factor limiting service life. I hope that 64G in the Nexus 6P will solve that problem, giving me 3 years of use and making it useful to my relatives afterwards. Currently I have 32G of storage of which about 8G is used by my music video collection and about 3G is free, so 64G should last me for a long time. Having only 3G of RAM might be a problem, but I’m thinking of trying CyanogenMod again so maybe with root access I can reduce the amount of RAM use.

Xen CPU Use per Domain again

8 years ago I wrote a script to summarise Xen CPU use per domain [1]. Since then changes to Xen required changes to the script. I have new versions for Debian/Wheezy (Xen 4.1) and Debian/Jessie (Xen 4.4).

Here’s a new script for Debian/Wheezy:

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;

open(LIST, "xm list --long|") or die "Can't get list";

my $name = "Dom0";
my $uptime = 0.0;
my $cpu_time = 0.0;
my $total_percent = 0.0;
my $cur_time = time();

open(UPTIME, "</proc/uptime") or die "Can't open /proc/uptime";
my @arr = split(/ /, <UPTIME>);
$uptime = $arr[0];
close(UPTIME);

my %all_cpu;

while(<LIST>)
{
  chomp;
  if($_ =~ /^\)/)
  {
    my $cpu = $cpu_time / $uptime * 100.0;
    if($name =~ /Domain-0/)
    {
      printf("%s uses %.2f%% of one CPU\n", $name, $cpu);
    }
    else
    {
      $all_cpu{$name} = $cpu;
    }
    $total_percent += $cpu;
    next;
  }
  $_ =~ s/\).*$//;
  if($_ =~ /start_time /)
  {
    $_ =~ s/^.*start_time //;
    $uptime = $cur_time – $_;
    next;
  }
  if($_ =~ /cpu_time /)
  {
    $_ =~ s/^.*cpu_time //;
    $cpu_time = $_;
    next;
  }
  if($_ =~ /\(name /)
  {
    $_ =~ s/^.*name //;
    $name = $_;
    next;
  }
}
close(LIST);

sub hashValueDescendingNum {
  $all_cpu{$b} <=> $all_cpu{$a};
}

my $key;

foreach $key (sort hashValueDescendingNum (keys(%all_cpu)))
{
  printf("%s uses %.2f%% of one CPU\n", $key, $all_cpu{$key});
}

printf("Overall CPU use approximates %.1f%% of one CPU\n", $total_percent);

Here’s the script for Debian/Jessie:

#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;

open(UPTIME, "xl uptime|") or die "Can't get uptime";
open(LIST, "xl list|") or die "Can't get list";

my %all_uptimes;

while(<UPTIME>)
{
  chomp $_;

  next if($_ =~ /^Name/);
  $_ =~ s/ +/ /g;

  my @split1 = split(/ /, $_);
  my $dom = $split1[0];
  my $uptime = 0;
  my $time_ind = 2;
  if($split1[3] eq "days,")
  {
    $uptime = $split1[2] * 24 * 3600;
    $time_ind = 4;
  }
  my @split2 = split(/:/, $split1[$time_ind]);
  $uptime += $split2[0] * 3600 + $split2[1] * 60 + $split2[2];
  $all_uptimes{$dom} = $uptime;
}
close(UPTIME);

my $total_percent = 0;

while(<LIST>)
{
  chomp $_;

  my $dom = $_;
  $dom =~ s/ .*$//;

  if ( $_ =~ /(\d+)\.[0-9]$/ )
  {
    my $percent = $1 / $all_uptimes{$dom} * 100.0;
    $total_percent += $percent;
    printf("%s uses %.2f%% of one CPU\n", $dom, $percent);
  }
  else
  {
    next;
  }
}

printf("Overall CPU use approximates  %.1f%% of one CPU\n", $total_percent);

BIND Configuration Files

I’ve recently been setting up more monitoring etc to increase the reliability of servers I run. One ongoing issue with computer reliability is any case where a person enters the same data in multiple locations, often people make mistakes and enter slightly different data which can give bad results.

For DNS you need to have at least 2 authoritative servers for each zone. I’ve written the below Makefile to extract the zone names from the primary server and generate a config file suitable for use on a secondary server. The next step is to automate this further by having the Makefile copy the config file to secondary servers and run “rndc reload”. Note that in a typical Debian configuration any user in group “bind” can write to BIND config files and reload the server configuration so this can be done without granting the script on the primary server root access on the secondary servers.

My blog replaces the TAB character with 8 spaces, you need to fix this up if you want to run the Makefile on your own system and also replace 10.10.10.10 with the IP address of your primary server.

all: other/secondary.conf

other/secondary.conf: named.conf.local Makefile
        for n in $$(grep ^zone named.conf.local | cut -f2 -d\"|sort) ; do echo "zone \"$$n\" {\n  type slave;\n  file \"$$n\";\n  masters { 10.10.10.10; };\n};\n" ; done > other/secondary.conf

Ethernet Interface Naming With Systemd

Systemd has a new way of specifying names for Ethernet interfaces as documented in systemd.link(5). The Debian package should keep working with the old 70-persistent-net.rules file, but I had a problem with this that forced me to learn about systemd.link(5).

Below is a little shell script I wrote to convert a basic 70-persistent-net.rules (that only matches on MAC address) to systemd.link files.

#!/bin/bash

RULES=/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

for n in $(grep ^SUB $RULES|sed -e s/^.*NAME..// -e s/.$//) ; do
  NAME=/etc/systemd/network/10-$n.link
  LINE=$(grep $n $RULES)
  MAC=$(echo $LINE|sed -e s/^.*address….// -e s/…ATTR.*$//)
  echo "[Match]" > $NAME
  echo "MACAddress=$MAC" >> $NAME
  echo "[Link]" >> $NAME
  echo "Name=$n" >> $NAME
done

Unikernels

At LCA I attended a talk about Unikernels. Here are the reasons why I think that they are a bad idea:

Single Address Space

According to the Unikernel Wikipedia page [1] a significant criteria for a Unikernel system is that it has a single address space. This gives performance benefits as there is no need to change CPU memory mappings when making system calls. But the disadvantage is that any code in the application/kernel can access any other code directly.

In a typical modern OS (Linux, BSD, Windows, etc) every application has a separate address space and there are separate memory regions for code and data. While an application can request the ability to modify it’s own executable code in some situations (if the OS is configured to allow that) it won’t happen by default. In MS-DOS and in a Unikernel system all code has read/write/execute access to all memory. MS-DOS was the least reliable OS that I ever used. It was unreliable because it performed tasks that were more complex than CP/M but had no memory protection so any bug in any code was likely to cause a system crash. The crash could be delayed by some time (EG corrupting data structures that are only rarely accessed) which would make it very difficult to fix. It would be possible to have a Unikernel system with non-modifyable executable areas and non-executable data areas and it is conceivable that a virtual machine system like Xen could enforce that. But that still wouldn’t solve the problem of all code being able to write to all data.

On a Linux system when an application writes to the wrong address there is a reasonable probability that it will not have write access and you will immediately get a SEGV which is logged and informs the sysadmin of the address of the crash.

When Linux applications have bugs that are difficult to diagnose (EG buffer overruns that happen in production and can’t be reproduced in a test environment) there are a variety of ways of debugging them. Tools such as Valgrind can analyse memory access and tell the developers which code had a bug and what the bug does. It’s theoretically possible to link something like Valgrind into a Unikernel, but the lack of multiple processes would make it difficult to manage.

Debugging

A full Unix environment has a rich array of debugging tools, strace, ltrace, gdb, valgrind and more. If there are performance problems then tools like sysstat, sar, iostat, top, iotop, and more. I don’t know which of those tools I might need to debug problems at some future time.

I don’t think that any Internet facing service can be expected to be reliable enough that it will never need any sort of debugging.

Service Complexity

It’s very rare for a server to have only a single process performing the essential tasks. It’s not uncommon to have a web server running CGI-BIN scripts or calling shell scripts from PHP code as part of the essential service. Also many Unix daemons are not written to run as a single process, at least threading is required and many daemons require multiple processes.

It’s also very common for the design of a daemon to rely on a cron job to clean up temporary files etc. It is possible to build the functionality of cron into a Unikernel, but that means more potential bugs and more time spent not actually developing the core application.

One could argue that there are design benefits to writing simple servers that don’t require multiple programs. But most programmers aren’t used to doing that and in many cases it would result in a less efficient result.

One can also argue that a Finite State Machine design is the best way to deal with many problems that are usually solved by multi-threading or multiple processes. But most programmers are better at writing threaded code so forcing programmers to use a FSM design doesn’t seem like a good idea for security.

Management

The typical server programs rely on cron jobs to rotate log files and monitoring software to inspect the state of the system for the purposes of graphing performance and flagging potential problems.

It would be possible to compile the functionality of something like the Nagios NRPE into a Unikernel if you want to have your monitoring code running in the kernel. I’ve seen something very similar implemented in the past, the CA Unicenter monitoring system on Solaris used to have a kernel module for monitoring (I don’t know why). My experience was that Unicenter caused many kernel panics and more downtime than all other problems combined. It would not be difficult to write better code than the typical CA employee, but writing code that is good enough to have a monitoring system running in the kernel on a single-threaded system is asking a lot.

One of the claimed benefits of a Unikernel was that it’s supposedly risky to allow ssh access. The recent ssh security issue was an attack against the ssh client if it connected to a hostile server. If you had a ssh server only accepting connections from management workstations (a reasonably common configuration for running servers) and only allowed the ssh clients to connect to servers related to work (an uncommon configuration that’s not difficult to implement) then there wouldn’t be any problems in this regard.

I think that I’m a good programmer, but I don’t think that I can write server code that’s likely to be more secure than sshd.

On Designing It Yourself

One thing that everyone who has any experience in security has witnessed is that people who design their own encryption inevitably do it badly. The people who are experts in cryptology don’t design their own custom algorithm because they know that encryption algorithms need significant review before they can be trusted. The people who know how to do it well know that they can’t do it well on their own. The people who know little just go ahead and do it.

I think that the same thing applies to operating systems. I’ve contributed a few patches to the Linux kernel and spent a lot of time working on SE Linux (including maintaining out of tree kernel patches) and know how hard it is to do it properly. Even though I’m a good programmer I know better than to think I could just build my own kernel and expect it to be secure.

I think that the Unikernel people haven’t learned this.

Compatibility and a Linux Community Server

Compatibility/interoperability is a good thing. It’s generally good for systems on the Internet to be capable of communicating with as many systems as possible. Unfortunately it’s not always possible as new features sometimes break compatibility with older systems. Sometimes you have systems that are simply broken, for example all the systems with firewalls that block ICMP so that connections hang when the packet size gets too big. Sometimes to take advantage of new features you have to potentially trigger issues with broken systems.

I recently added support for IPv6 to the Linux Users of Victoria server. I think that adding IPv6 support is a good thing due to the lack of IPv4 addresses even though there are hardly any systems that are unable to access IPv4. One of the benefits of this for club members is that it’s a platform they can use for testing IPv6 connectivity with a friendly sysadmin to help them diagnose problems. I recently notified a member by email that the callback that their mail server used as an anti-spam measure didn’t work with IPv6 and was causing mail to be incorrectly rejected. It’s obviously a benefit for that user to have the problem with a small local server than with something like Gmail.

In spite of the fact that at least one user had problems and others potentially had problems I think it’s clear that adding IPv6 support was the correct thing to do.

SSL Issues

Ben wrote a good post about SSL security [1] which links to a test suite for SSL servers [2]. I tested the LUV web site and got A-.

This blog post describes how to setup PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) [3], after following it’s advice I got a score of B!

From the comments on this blog post about RC4 etc [4] it seems that the only way to have PFS and not be vulnerable to other issues is to require TLS 1.2.

So the issue is what systems can’t use TLS 1.2.

TLS 1.2 Support in Browsers

This Wikipedia page has information on SSL support in various web browsers [5]. If we require TLS 1.2 we break support of the following browsers:

The default Android browser before Android 5.0. Admittedly that browser always sucked badly and probably has lots of other security issues and there are alternate browsers. One problem is that many people who install better browsers on Android devices (such as Chrome) will still have their OS configured to use the default browser for URLs opened by other programs (EG email and IM).

Chrome versions before 30 didn’t support it. But version 30 was released in 2013 and Google does a good job of forcing upgrades. A Debian/Wheezy system I run is now displaying warnings from the google-chrome package saying that Wheezy is too old and won’t be supported for long!

Firefox before version 27 didn’t support it (the Wikipedia page is unclear about versions 27-31). 27 was released in 2014. Debian/Wheezy has version 38, Debian/Squeeze has Iceweasel 3.5.16 which doesn’t support it. I think it is reasonable to assume that anyone who’s still using Squeeze is using it for a server given it’s age and the fact that LTS is based on packages related to being a server.

IE version 11 supports it and runs on Windows 7+ (all supported versions of Windows). IE 10 doesn’t support it and runs on Windows 7 and Windows 8. Are the free upgrades from Windows 7 to Windows 10 going to solve this problem? Do we want to support Windows 7 systems that haven’t been upgraded to the latest IE? Do we want to support versions of Windows that MS doesn’t support?

Windows mobile doesn’t have enough users to care about.

Opera supports it from version 17. This is noteworthy because Opera used to be good for devices running older versions of Android that aren’t supported by Chrome.

Safari supported it from iOS version 5, I think that’s a solved problem given the way Apple makes it easy for users to upgrade and strongly encourages them to do so.

Log Analysis

For many servers the correct thing to do before even discussing the issue is to look at the logs and see how many people use the various browsers. One problem with that approach on a Linux community site is that the people who visit the site most often will be more likely to use recent Linux browsers but older Windows systems will be more common among people visiting the site for the first time. Another issue is that there isn’t an easy way of determining who is a serious user, unlike for example a shopping site where one could search for log entries about sales.

I did a quick search of the Apache logs and found many entries about browsers that purport to be IE6 and other versions of IE before 11. But most of those log entries were from other countries, while some people from other countries visit the club web site it’s not very common. Most access from outside Australia would be from bots, and the bots probably fake their user agent.

Should We Do It?

Is breaking support for Debian/Squeeze, the built in Android browser on Android <5.0, and Windows 7 and 8 systems that haven’t upgraded IE as a web browsing platform a reasonable trade-off for implementing the best SSL security features?

For the LUV server as a stand-alone issue the answer would be no as the only really secret data there is accessed via ssh. For a general web infrastructure issue it seems that the answer might be yes.

I think that it benefits the community to allow members to test against server configurations that will become more popular in the future. After implementing changes in the server I can advise club members (and general community members) about how to configure their servers for similar results.

Does this outweigh the problems caused by some potential users of ancient systems?

I’m blogging about this because I think that the issues of configuration of community servers have a greater scope than my local LUG. I welcome comments about these issues, as well as about the SSL compatibility issues.