Linux, politics, and other interesting things
First you need to login and create a certificate (you can upload your own certificate – but this is probably only beneficial if you have two EC2 accounts and want to use the same certificate for both). Download the X509 private key file (named pk-X.pem) and the public key (named cert-X.pem). My Debian package of the EC2 API tools will look for the key files in the ~/.ec2 and /etc/ec2 directories and will take the first one it finds by default.
To override the certificate (when using my Debian package) or to just have it work when using the code without my package you set the variables EC2_PRIVATE_KEY and EC2_CERT.
This Amazon page describes some of the basics of setting up the client software and RSA keys . I will describe some of the most important things now:
The command “ec2-add-keypair gsg-keypair > id_rsa-gsg-keypair” creates a new keypair for logging in to an EC2 instance. The public key goes to amazon and the private key can be used by any ssh client to login as root when you creat an instance. To create an instance with that key you use the “-k gsg-keypair” option, so it seems a requirement to use the same working directory for creating all instances. Note that gsg-keypair could be replaced by any other string, if you are doing something really serious with EC2 you might use one account to create instances that are run by different people with different keys. But for most people I think that a single key is all that is required. Strangely they don’t provide a way of getting access to the public key, you have to create an instance and then copy the /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file for that.
The first thing it describes is the command ec2-describe-images -o self -o amazon which gives a list of all images owned by yourself and all public images owned by Amazon. It’s fairly clear that Amazon doesn’t expect you to use their images. The i386 OS images that they have available are Fedora Core 4 (four configurations with two versions of each) and Fedora 8 (a single configuration with two versions) as well as three other demo images that don’t indicate the version. The AMD64 OS images that they have available are Fedora Core 6 and Fedora Core 8. Obviously if they wanted customers to use their own images (which seems like a really good idea to me) they would provide images of CentOS (or one of the other recompiles of RHEL) and Debian. I have written about why I think that this is a bad idea for security , please make sure that you don’t use the ancient Amazon images for anything other than testing!
To test choose an i386 image from Amazon’s list, i386 is best for testing because it allows the cheapest instances (currently $0.10 per hour).
Before launching an instance allow ssh access to it with the command “ec2-authorize default -p 22“. Note that this command permits access for the entire world. There are options to limit access to certain IP address ranges, but at this stage it’s best to focus on getting something working. Of course you don’t want to actually use your first attempt at creating an instance, I think that setting up an instance to run in a secure and reliable manner would require many attempts and tests. As all the storage of the instance is wiped when it terminates (as we aren’t using S3 yet) and you won’t have any secret data online security doesn’t need to be the highest priority.
A sample command to run an instance is “ec2-run-instances ami-2b5fba42 -k gsg-keypair” where ami-2b5fba42 is a public Fedora 8 image available at this moment. This will give output similar to the following:
RESERVATION r-281fc441 999999999999 default
INSTANCE i-0c999999 ami-2b5fba42 pending gsg-keypair 0 m1.small 2008-11-04T06:03:09+0000 us-east-1c aki-a71cf9ce ari-a51cf9cc
The parameter after the word INSTANCE is the serial number of the instance. The command “ec2-describe-instances i-0c999999” will provide information on the instance, once it is running (which may be a few minutes after you request it) you will see output such as the following:
RESERVATION r-281fc441 999999999999 default
INSTANCE i-0c999999 ami-2b5fba42 ec2-10-11-12-13.compute-1.amazonaws.com domU-12-34-56-78-9a-bc.compute-1.internal running gsg-keypair 0 m1.small 2008-11-04T06:03:09+0000 us-east-1c aki-a71cf9ce ari-a51cf9cc
The command “ssh -i id_rsa-gsg-keypair firstname.lastname@example.org” will then grant you root access. The part of the name such as 10-11-12-13 is the public IP address. Naturally you won’t see 10.11.12.13, it will instead be public addresses in the Amazon range – I replaced the addresses to avoid driving bots to their site.
The name domU-12-34-56-78-9a-bc.compute-1.internal is listed in Amazon’s internal DNS and returns the private IP address (in the 10.0.0.0/8 range) which is used for the instance. The instance has no public IP address, all connections (both inbound and outbound) run through some sort of NAT. This shouldn’t be a problem for HTTP, SMTP, and most protocols that are suitable for running on such a service. But for FTP or UDP based services it might be a problem. The part of the name such as12-34-56-78-9a-bc is the MAC address of the eth0 device.
To halt a service you can run shutdown or halt as root in the instance, or run the ec2-terminate-instances command and give it the instance ID that you want to terminate. It seems to me that the best way of terminating an instance would be to run a script that produces a summary of whatver the instance did (you might not want to preserve all the log data, but some summary information would be useful), and give all operations that are in progress time to stop before running halt. A script could run on the management system to launch such an orderly shutdown script on the instance and then uses ec2-terminate-instances if the instance does not terminate quickly enough.
In the near future I will document many aspects of using EC2. This will include dynamic configuration of the host, dynamic DNS, and S3 storage among other things.