Linux, politics, and other interesting things
Today a client asked me to advise him on how to dramatically reduce the number of servers for his business. He needs to go from 18 active servers to 4. Some of the machines in the network are redundant servers. By reducing some of the redundancy I can remove four servers, so now it’s a need to go from 14 to 4.
To determine the hardware requirements I analyzed the sar output from all machines. The last 10 days of data were available, so I took the highest daily average numbers from each machine for user and system CPU load and added them up, the result was 221%. So for the average daily CPU use three servers would have enough power to run the entire network. Then I looked at the highest 5 minute averages for user and system CPU load from each machine which add up to 582%. So if all machines were to have their peak usage times simultaneously (which doesn’t happen) then the CPU power of six machines would be needed. I conclude that the CPU power requirements are somewhere between 3 and 6 machines, so 4 machines may do an OK job.
The next issue is IO capacity. The current network has 2G of RAM in each machine and I plan to run it all on 4G Xen servers, so it’s a total of 16G of RAM instead of 36G. While some machines currently have unused memory I expect that the end result of this decrease in total RAM will be more cache misses and more swapping so the total IO capacity use will increase slightly. Now four of the servers (which will eventually become Xen Dom0’s) have significant IO capacity (large RAIDs – they appear to have 10*72G disks in a RAID-5) and the rest have a smaller IO capacity (they appear to have 4*72G disks in a RAID-10). The other 14 machines have the highest daily averages for iowait adding up to 9% and the highest 5 minute averages adding up to 105%. I hope that spreading that 105% of the IO capacity of a 4 DISK RAID-10 across four sets of 10 disk RAID-5’s won’t give overly bad performance.
I am concerned that there may be some flaw in the methodology that I am using to estimate capacity. One issue is that I’m very doubtful about the utility of measuring iowait, one issue is that iowait is the amount of IDLE CPU time when there are processes blocked on IO. So if for example you have 100% CPU time being used then iowait will be zero regardless of how much disk IO is in progress! One check that I performed was to add the maximum CPU time used, the maximum iowait, and the minimum IDLE time. Most machines gave totals that were very close to 100% when those columns were added, so it seems that if the maximum iowait for a 5 minute period plus the maximum CPU use plus the minimum idle time add up to 100% and the minimum idle time was not very low then it seems unlikely that there was any significant overlap between disk IO and CPU use to hide iowait. One machine had a total of 147% for those fields in the 5 minute average which suggests that the IO load may be higher than the 66% iowait number may indicate. But if I put that in a DomU on the machine with the most unused IO capacity then it should be OK.
I will be interested to read any suggestions for how to proceed with this. But unfortunately it will probably be impossible to consider any suggestion which involves extra hardware or abandoning the plan due to excessive risk…
I will write about the results.Tags: Best Posts