Linux, politics, and other interesting things
It has recently been announced that Debian had a serious bug in the OpenSSL code , the most visible affect of this is compromising SSH keys – but it can also affect VPN and HTTPS keys. Erich Schubert was one of the first people to point out the true horror of the problem, only 2^15 different keys can be created . It should not be difficult for an attacker to generate 2^15 host keys to try all combinations for decrypting a login session. It should also be possible to make up to 2^15 attempts to login to a session remotely if an attacker believes that an authorized key was being used – that would take less than an hour at a rate of 10 attempts per second (which is possible with modern net connections) and could be done in a day if the server was connected to the net by a modem.
John Goerzen has some insightful thoughts about the issue . I recommend reading his post. One point he makes is that the person who made the mistake in question should not be lynched. One thing I think we should keep in mind is the fact that people tend to be more careful after they have made mistakes, I expect that anyone who makes a mistake in such a public way which impacts so many people will be very careful for a long time…
Steinar H. Gunderson analyses the maths in relation to DSA keys, it seems that if a DSA key is ever used with a bad RNG then it can be cracked by someone who sniffs the network . It seems that it is safest to just not use DSA to avoid this risk. Another issue is that if a client supports multiple host keys (ssh version 2 can use three different key types, one for the ssh1 protocol, one for ssh2 with RSA, and one for ssh2 with DSA) then a man in the middle attack can be implemented by forcing a client to use a different key type – see Stealth’s article in Phrack for the details . So it seems that we should remove support for anything other than SSHv2 with RSA keys.
To remove such support from the ssh server edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and make sure it has a line with “Protocol 2“, and that the only HostKey line references an RSA key. To remove it from the ssh client (the important thing) edit /etc/ssh/ssh_config and make sure that it has something like the following:
You can override this for different machines. So if you have a machine that uses DSA only then it would be easy to add a section:
So making the default configuration of the ssh client on all machines you manage has the potential to dramatically reduce the incidence of MITM attacks from the less knowledgable users.
When skilled users who do not have root access need to change things they can always edit the file ~/.ssh/config (which has the same syntax as /etc/ssh/ssh_config) or they can use command-line options to override it. The command ssh -o “HostKeyAlgorithms ssh-dsa” user@server will force the use of DSA encryption even if the configuration file requests RSA.
Enrico Zini describes how to use ssh-keygen to get the fingerprint of the host key . One thing I have learned from comments on this post is how to get a fingerprint from a known hosts file. A common situation is that machine A has a known hosts file with an entry for machine B. I want to get the right key in machine C and there is no way of directly communicating between machine A and machine C (EG they are in different locations with no network access). In that situation the command “ssh-keygen -l -f ~/.ssh/known_hosts” can be used to display all the fingerprints of hosts that you have connected to in the past, then it’s a simple matter of grepping the output.
Docunext has an interesting post about ways of mitigating such problems . One thing that they suggest is using fail2ban to block IP addresses that appear to be trying to do brute-force attacks. It’s unfortunate that the version of fail2ban in Debian uses /tmp/fail2ban.sock for it’s Unix domain socket for talking to the server (the version in Unstable uses /var/run/fail2ban/fail2ban.sock). They also mention patching network drivers to add entropy to the kernel random number generator. One thing that seems interesting is the package randomsound (currently in Debian/Unstable) which takes ALSA sound input as a source of entropy, note that you don’t need to have any sound input device connected.
When considering fail2ban and similar things, it’s probably best to start by restricting the number of machines which can connect to your SSH server. Firstly if you put it on a non-default port then it’ll take some brute-force to find it. This will waste some of the attacker’s time and also make the less persistent attackers go elsewhere. One thing that I am considering is having a few unused ports configured such that any IP address which connects to them gets added to my NetFilter configuration – if you connect to such ports then you can’t connect to any other ports for a week (or until the list becomes too full). So if for example I had port N configured in such a manner and port N+100 used for ssh listening then it’s likely that someone who port-scans my server would be blocked before they even discovered the SSH server. Does anyone know of free software to do this?
The next thing to consider is which IP addresses may connect. If you were to allow all the IP addresses from all the major ISPs in your country to connect to your server then it would still be a small fraction of the IP address space. Sure attackers could use machines that they already cracked in your country to launch their attacks, but they would have to guess that you had such a defense in place, and even so it would be an inconvenience for them. You don’t necessarily need to have a perfect defense, you only need to make the effort to reward ratio be worse for attacking you than for attacking someone else. Note that I am not advocating taking a minimalist approach to security, merely noting that even a small increment in the strength of your defenses can make a significant difference to the risk you face.
Update: based on comments I’m now considering knockd to open ports on demand. The upstream site for knockd is here , and some documentation on setting it up in Debian is here . The concept of knockd is that you make connections to a series of ports which act as a password for changing the firewall rules. An attacker who doesn’t know those port numbers won’t be able to connect. Of course anyone who can sniff your network will discover the ports soon enough, but I guess you can always login and change the port numbers once knockd has let you in.
Also thanks to Helmut for advice on ssh-keygen.