Linux, politics, and other interesting things
I believe that the Red Hat process which has Fedora for home users (with a rapid release cycle and new versions of software but support for only about one year) and Enterprise Linux (with a ~18 month release cycle, seven years of support, and not always having the latest versions) gives significant benefits for the users.
The longer freeze times of Enterprise Linux (AKA RHEL) mean that it often has older versions of software than a Fedora release occurring at about the same time. In practice the only time I ever notice users complaining about this is in terms of OpenOffice (which is always being updated for compatability with the latest MS changes). As an aside, a version of RHEL or CentOS with a back-port of the latest OpenOffice would probably get a lot of interest.
RHEL also has a significantly smaller package set than Fedora, there is a lot of software out there that you wouldn’t want to support for seven years, a lot of software that you might want to support if you had more resources, and plenty of software that is not really of interest to enterprise customers (EG games).
Now there are some down-sides to the Red Hat plan. The way that they run Fedora is to have new releases of software instead of back-porting fixes. This means that bugs can be fixed with less effort (simply compiling a new version is a lot less effort than back-porting a fix), and that newer versions of the upstream code get tested. With some things this isn’t a problem, but in the past I have had problems with the Fedora kernel. One example was when I upgraded the kernel on a bunch of remote Fedora machines only to find that the new kernel didn’t support the network card, so I had to talk the users through selecting the older kernel at the GRUB menu (this caused pain and down-time). A problem with RHEL (which I see regularly on the CentOS machines I run) is that it doesn’t have the community support that Fedora does, and therefore finding binary packages for RHEL can be difficult – and often the packages are outdated.
I believe that in Debian we could provide benefits for some of our users by copying some ideas from Red Hat. There is currently some work in progress on releasing packages that are half-way between Etch and Lenny (Etch is the current release, Lenny will be the next one). The term Etch and a half refers to the work to make Etch run on newer hardware . It’s a good project, but I don’t think that it goes far enough. It certainly won’t fulfill the requirements of people who want something like Fedora.
I think that if we had half-way releases of Debian (essentially taking a snap-shot of Testing and then fixing the worst of the bugs) then we could accommodate user demand for newer versions (making available a release which is on average half as old). Users who want really solid systems would run the full releases (which have more testing pre-release and more attention paid to bug fixes), but users who need the new features could run a half-way release. Currently there are people working on providing security support for Testing so that people who need the more recent versions of software can use Testing, I believe that making a half-way release would provide better benefits to most users while also possibly taking less resources from the developers. This would not preclude the current “Etch and a half” work of back-porting drivers, in the Red Hat model such driver back-ports are done in the first few years of RHEL support. If we were to really follow Red Hat in this regard the “Etch and a half” work would operate in tandem with similar work for Sarge (version 3.1 of Debian which was released in 2005)!
In summary, the Red Hat approach is to have Fedora releases aimed at every 6 months, but in practice coming out every 9 months or so and to have Enterprise Linux releases aimed at every year, but in practice coming out every 18 months. This means among other things that there can be some uncertainty as to the release order of future Fedora and RHEL releases.
I believe that a good option for Debian would be to have alternate “Enterprise” (for want of a better word) and half-way releases (comparable to RHEL and Fedora). The Enterprise releases could be frozen in coordination with Red Hat, Ubuntu, and other distributions (Mark Shuttleworth now refers to this as being a “pulse” in the free software community , while the half-way releases would come out either when it’s about half-way between releases, or when there is a significant set of updates that would encourage users to switch.
One of the many benefits to having synchronised releases is that if the work in back-porting support for new hardware lagged in Debian then users would have a reasonable chance of taking the code from CentOS. If nothing else I think that making kernels from other distributions available for easy install is a good thing. There is a wide combination of kernel patches that may be selected by distribution maintainers, and sometimes choices have to be made between mutually exclusive options. If the Debian kernel doesn’t work best for a user then it would be good to provide them with a kernel compiled from the RHEL kernel source package and possibly other kernels.
Mark also makes the interesting suggestion of having different waves of code freeze, the first for the kernel, GCC, and glibc, and possibly server programs such as Apache. The second for major applications and desktop environments. The third for distributions. One implication of this is that not all distributions will follow the second wave. If a distribution follows the kernel, GCC, and glibc wave but not the applications wave it will still save some significant amounts of effort for the users. It will mean that the distributions in question will all have the same hardware support and kernel features, and that they will be able to run each others’ applications (except when the applications in question use system libraries from later waves). Also let’s not forget the possibility of running a kernel from distribution A on distribution B, it’s something I’ve done on many occasions, but it does rely on the kernels in question being reasonably similar in terms of features.Best Posts, Debian, Fedora, Most Popular