Linux, politics, and other interesting things
Nowadays it seems that most serious mail servers (IE mail servers suitable for running an ISP) use one file per message. In the old days (before about 1996) almost all Internet email was stored in Mbox format . In Mbox you have a large number of messages in a single file, most users would have a single file with all their mail and the advanced users would have multiple files for storing different categories of mail. A significant problem with Mbox is that it was necessary to read the entire file to determine how many messages were stored, as determining the number of messages was the first thing that was done in a POP connection this caused significant performance problems for POP servers. Even more serious problems occurred when messages were deleted as the Mbox file needed to be compacted.
Maildir is a mail storage method developed by Dan Bernstein based around the idea of one file per message . It solves the performance problems of Mbox and also solves some reliability issues (file locking is not needed). It was invented in 1996 and has since become widely used in Unix messaging systems.
The Cyrus IMAP server  uses a format similar to Maildir. The most significant difference is that the Cyrus data is regarded as being private to the Cyrus system (IE you are not supposed to mess with it) while Maildir is designed to be used by any tools that you wish (EG my Maildir-Bulletin project ).
One down-side to such formats that many people don’t realise (except at the worst time) is the the difficulty in performing backups. As a test I used LVM volume stored on a RAID-1 array of two 20G 7200rpm IDE disks with 343M of data used (according to “df -h” and 39358 inodes in use (as there were 5000 accounts with maildir storage that means 25,000 directories for the home directories and Maildir directories). So there were 14,358 files. To create a tar file of that (written to /dev/null via dd to avoid tar’s optimisation of /dev/null) took 230.6 seconds, 105MB of data was transferred for a transfer rate of 456KB/s. It seems that tar stores the data in a more space efficient manner than the Ext3 filesystem (105MB vs 343MB). For comparison either of the two disks can deliver 40MB/s for the inner tracks. So it seems that unless the amount of used space is less than 1% of the total disk space it will be faster to transfer a filesystem image.
If you have disks that are faster than your network (EG old IDE disks can sustain 40MB/s transfer rates on machines with 100baseT networking and RAID arrays can easily sustain hundreds of megabytes a second on machines with gigabit Ethernet networking) then compression has the potential to improve the speed. Of course the fastest way of transferring such data is to connect the disks to the new machine, this is usually possible when using IDE disks but the vast number of combinations of SCSI bus, disk format, and RAID controller makes it almost impossible on systems with hardware RAID.
The first test I made of compression was on a 1GHz Athlon system which could compress (via gzip -1) 100M of data with four seconds of CPU time. This means that compression has the potential to reduce the overall transfer time (the machine in question has 100baseT networking and no realistic option of adding Gig-E).
The next test I made was on a 3.2GHz Pentium-4 Xeon system. It compressed 1000M of data in 77 seconds (it didn’t have the same data as the Athlon system so it can’t be directly compared), as 1000M would take something like 10 or 12 seconds to transfer at Gig-E speeds that obviously isn’t a viable option.
The gzip -1 compression however compressed the data to 57% of it’s original size, the fact that it compresses so well with gzip -1 suggests to me that there might be a compression method that uses less CPU time while still getting a worth-while amount of compression. If anyone can suggest such a compression method then I would be very interested to try it out. The goal would be a program that can compress 1G of data in significantly less than 10 seconds on a 3.2GHz P4.
Without compression the time taken to transfer 500G of data at Gig-E speeds will probably approach two hours. Not a good amount of down-time for a service that runs 24*7. Particularly given that some time would be spent in getting the new machine to actually use the data.
As for how to design a system to not have these problems, I’ll write a future post with some ideas for how to alleviate that.