I’ve been investigating the Ext4 filesystem .
The main factor that is driving me to Ext4 at the moment is fsck times. I have some systems running Ext3 on large filesystems which I need to extend. In most cases Ext3 filesystems have large numbers of Inodes free because the relationship between the number of Inodes and the filesystem size is set when it is created, enlarging the filesystem increases the number of Inodes and apart from backup/format/restore there is no way of changing this. Some of the filesystems I manage can’t be converted because the backup/restore time would involve an unreasonable amount of downtime.
Page 11 of the OLS paper by Avantika Mathur et al  has a graph of the relationship between the number of Inodes and fsck time.
Ext4 also has a number of other features to improve performance, including changes to journaling and block allocation.
Now my most important systems are all virtualised. I am using Debian/Lenny and RHEL5 for the Dom0s. Red Hat might back-port Ext4 to the RHEL5 kernel, but there will probably never be a supported kernel for Debian/Lenny with Ext4 and Xen Dom0 support (there may never be a kernel for any Debian release with such support).
So this means that in a few months time I will be running some DomUs which have filesystems that can’t be mounted in the Dom0. This isn’t a problem when everything works well. But when things go wrong it’s really convenient to be able to amount a filesystem in the Dom0 to fix things, this option will disappear for some of my systems, so if virtual machine A has a problem then I will have to mount it’s filesystems with virtual machine B to fix it. Of course this is a strong incentive to use multiple block devices for the virtual machine so that a small root filesystem can be run with Ext3 and the rest can be Ext4.
At the moment only Debian/Unstable and Fedora have support for Ext4 so this isn’t a real issue. But Debian/Squeeze will release with Ext4 support and I expect that RHEL6 will also have it. When those releases happen I will be upgrading my virtual machines and will have these support issues.
It’s a pity that Red Hat never supported XFS, I could have solved some of these problems years ago if XFS was available.
Now for non-virtual machines one factor to consider is that the legacy version of GRUB doesn’t support Ext4, I discovered this after I used tune2fs to convert all filesystems on my EeePC to Ext4. I think I could have undone that tune2fs option but instead decided to upgrade to the new version of GRUB and copy the kernel and initramfs to a USB device in case it didn’t boot. It turns out that the new version of GRUB seems to work well for booting from Ext4.
One thing that is not explicitly mentioned in the howto is that the fsck pass needed to convert to Ext4 will not be done automatically by most distributions. So when I converted my EeePC I had to use sulogin to manually fsck the filesystems. This isn’t a problem with a laptop, but could be a problem with a co-located server system.
For the long term BTRFS may be a better option, I plan to test it on /home on my EeePC. But I will give Ext4 some more testing first. In any case the Ext3 filesystems on big servers are not going to go away in a hurry.